An introduction to prototyping

This page contains a short lecture series introducing the concept of prototypes and prototyping. The video material (Total: 47 min) was created while working at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore during fall 2018 and is based on lectures and written material created between 2011 and 2018 at Umeå University.

  1. Product development (+introduction) (video, 9 min)
  2. Target audience (video, 7 min)
  3. Usability (video, 5 min)
  4. How to use prototypes (video, 4 min)
  5. Different types of prototypes (video, 11 min)
  6. User tests (video, 12 min)


Here is a list of references connected to prototype development and were used to create the material for the video lectures.

Some of these books are available at the University Library (for students at Umeå University) and most of the papers can be downloaded through the databases. For those of you not enrolled at Umeå University, please refer to your local library.

Buxton, B. (2007). Sketching User Experiences. Waltham, MA, USA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Dow, S. P., Glassco, A., Kass, J., Schwarz, M., Schwartz, D. L., & Klemmer, S. R. (2010). Parallel Prototyping Leads to Better Design Results, More Divergence, and Increased Self-Efficacy. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17(4), Article No. 18. doi: 10.1145/1879831.1879836

Egger, F. N. (2000). Lo-Fi vs. Hi-Fi Prototyping: how real does the real thing have to be? In Proceedings of OzCHI 2000:Interfacing reality in the new millennium. Sydney, NSW, Australia: The University of Technology. url:

Houde, S., & Hill, C. (1997). What Do Prototypes Prototype? In Helander, M., Landauer, T. and Prabhu, P. (Eds.), Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction (2nd ed.). AMS: Elsevier Science, B.V. doi: 10.1016/B978-044481862-1.50082-0

Kelly, J. F. (1983). An Empirical Methodology for Writing User-Friendly Natural Language Computer Applications. In Proceedings of CHI ’83, 193-196.  New York, NY, USA: ACM Press. doi: 10.1145/800045.801609

Krug, S. (2000). Don’t Make Me Think! A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. IN: New Riders Publishing.

Nielsen, J. (2012). Usability 101: Introduction to Usability. Retrieved December 13, 2020 from

Norman, D. (2013). The Design of Everyday Things. USA: Basic Books

Pernice, K. (2016). UX Prototypes: Low Fidelity vs. High Fidelity . Retrieved December 13, 2020 from

Preece, J., Sharp, H., & Rogers, Y. (2015). Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction (4th ed.).GBR: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Rogers, Y., & Marshall, P. (2017). Research in the Wild. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

Rudd, J., Stern, K., &Isensee, S. (1996). Low vs. high-fidelity prototyping debate. Interactions, 3(1), 76-85. doi: 10.1145/223500.223514

Shneiderman, B., & Plaisant, C. (2005). Designing the User Interface (4th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Stickdorn, M., & Schneider, J. (2012). This is service design thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Some of the books may have newer editions, which work just as well.

(First published by Thomas Mejtoft: 2019-02-10; revised: 2022-02-10; Last updated: 2023-02-23)